Which Healthcare System Wins? Sweden vs. South Korea

ths and challenges of different healthcare models. Sweden’s tax-funded, decentralized system emphasizes equity and preventive care but struggles with efficiency and long waiting times. In contrast, South Korea’s centralized, single-payer system excels in efficiency and technological integration, yet faces challenges with high out-of-pocket expenses and financial sustainability.

Maru Kim
Maru Kim

Imagine waking up in South Korea with a sudden stomach ache or catching a severe cold. The ease with which you can find and visit a specialist hospital within a short period, without the need for a prior referral, highlights a significant advantage of South Korea’s healthcare system. This convenience and accessibility are starkly contrasted with the experience in many other countries, where such direct access to specialist care might involve longer waiting times and additional steps.

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a litmus test for healthcare systems worldwide, revealing both strengths and vulnerabilities in ways that were previously unimagined. Countries with different healthcare models have responded to the crisis with varying degrees of success, highlighting the importance of robust and adaptable healthcare infrastructures. Among these, Sweden and South Korea stand out due to their contrasting approaches and outcomes during the pandemic.

Sweden, often celebrated for its comprehensive welfare state and egalitarian principles, adopted a controversial approach to managing COVID-19. Rather than imposing strict lockdowns, Sweden relied on voluntary measures and social trust to curb the spread of the virus. This strategy has sparked widespread debate and scrutiny, especially regarding its impact on the healthcare system and overall public health outcomes.

On the other hand, South Korea implemented a highly centralized and technologically advanced response to the pandemic. The country’s swift action in testing, contact tracing, and isolation of infected individuals has been praised globally. South Korea’s healthcare system, characterized by a single-payer model and universal coverage, managed to maintain control over the virus’s spread while ensuring that medical services remained accessible to the population.

We will compare the healthcare systems of Sweden and South Korea, focusing on their structures, funding mechanisms, key features, and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. By examining these two systems, we seek to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, providing insights into how different healthcare models can influence outcomes in times of global health crises.

In doing so, we will explore how Sweden’s decentralized, tax-funded system with a strong emphasis on preventive care and social equality contrasts with South Korea’s centralized, single-payer system known for its efficiency and technological integration. This comparison will not only highlight the effectiveness of each system in managing the pandemic but also offer lessons for future healthcare policy development.

By understanding these dynamics, we can better appreciate the complexities and challenges of maintaining robust healthcare systems in a rapidly changing world. This analysis will provide valuable insights for policymakers, healthcare professionals, and the general public, contributing to the ongoing dialogue about how to build resilient and equitable healthcare systems capable of withstanding future global health challenges.

Overview of Sweden’s Healthcare System

Sweden’s healthcare system is highly decentralized, with responsibilities divided among 21 regions and 290 municipalities. The system is predominantly financed through taxes, ensuring universal health coverage for all residents. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, supported by various national government agencies, oversees the overall healthcare policy and high-level governance.

Sweden’s healthcare system is characterized by high public funding, universal coverage, and an ambitious uptake of modern technologies aimed at preventing unhealthy lifestyles. These attributes contribute to Sweden having low levels of unmet medical needs and favorable health outcomes compared to other countries.

The system’s decentralization means that regions are responsible for financing, organizing, and providing healthcare services, while municipalities manage healthcare in elderly care facilities, schools, and for people with disabilities. This structure ensures that healthcare services are tailored to the local population’s needs.

Since 2012, Sweden has implemented several reforms to improve the availability and efficiency of healthcare services. Key reforms include:

  1. Improving Patient Choice and Primary Care: Introduction of privatization and choice in primary care and selected areas of specialist care. Efforts have been made to enhance waiting times, continuity, and coordination of care.
  2. Strengthening Specialist Care: Reforms have concentrated on implementing evidence-based and standardized care processes and further concentrating specialist services at national and regional levels.
  3. Efficiency Improvements: Financial incentives for healthcare providers have shifted from activity-based to fixed or capitated payment models. Digitalization and the substitution between staff categories have been encouraged to enhance efficiency.

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted significant challenges within the Swedish healthcare system. Despite high public funding and robust healthcare infrastructure, the system faced severe strain due to higher infection rates. The strategy of relying on voluntary social distancing measures instead of mandatory lockdowns led to increased pressure on hospitals and healthcare providers.

Long waiting times and limited access to specialized care became more pronounced during the pandemic, underscoring the need for further reforms to enhance healthcare system resilience and responsiveness. The pandemic also revealed disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, particularly affecting vulnerable populations.

Looking ahead, Sweden aims to continue discussions on the role of the national government in healthcare provision and further reforms to strengthen primary and specialist care. The focus will likely include continued digitalization, enhancing care coordination, and improving efficiency across the healthcare system to better prepare for future health emergencies.

Overview of South Korea’s Healthcare System

South Korea’s healthcare system operates under a centralized, single-payer model managed by the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). This system ensures universal healthcare coverage for nearly all residents, including compulsory insurance for both citizens and foreign residents who have lived in the country for over six months. The NHIS is primarily funded through premiums paid by individuals and employers, government subsidies, and taxes on tobacco sales. Despite its comprehensive coverage, the sustainability of this funding model faces challenges due to the aging population and a decreasing working-age population, which are projected to impact cumulative reserves by 2024​​.

South Korea’s healthcare system is renowned for its high-quality medical services, advanced technological integration, and efficient care delivery. Public healthcare in South Korea is not free but is considered affordable, with residents typically covering about 20% of their medical treatment costs as copayments. On average, monthly healthcare costs for residents amount to approximately 120,000 KRW (about 100 USD). The system supports a high degree of freedom in choosing healthcare providers, and the extensive use of digital platforms enhances the efficiency and accessibility of medical services​.

While the NHIS covers most healthcare needs, many residents and expatriates opt for additional private health insurance to offset significant out-of-pocket expenses for non-covered services, such as dental prosthetics, vision correction surgery, and certain new health technologies. Private insurance helps subsidize these costs and provides more comprehensive coverage for chronic or severe illnesses. This dual approach allows for broader access to high-quality care while managing financial risks associated with healthcare​.

South Korea’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been widely recognized for its effectiveness. The country’s centralized, technology-driven approach facilitated widespread testing, rigorous contact tracing, and efficient quarantine measures without the need for large-scale lockdowns. This proactive strategy minimized healthcare system strain and effectively controlled the virus spread. However, the pandemic also highlighted existing challenges, such as high out-of-pocket expenses and disparities in healthcare access between urban and rural areas. Additionally, the financial burden on the NHIS is expected to increase due to the aging population and the rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which drive up healthcare costs​​.

To ensure the long-term sustainability of the NHIS, the South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare has introduced a comprehensive five-year plan (2024-2028). This plan includes measures to better compensate undervalued medical services, particularly in critical areas like maternity care, pediatrics, and mental health. The ministry aims to allocate over 10 trillion won ($7.47 billion) to support these essential services and implement alternative payment models to incentivize high-quality and cost-efficient care. Additionally, new regulations have been introduced to prevent abuse of the healthcare system by foreign residents, ensuring that only those who meet stricter residency requirements qualify for health insurance coverage​.

Comparison of Key Aspects

Sweden: Tax-Based Funding 

Sweden’s healthcare system is predominantly funded through taxes, ensuring that healthcare is available to all residents. Public expenditure on health was 86% of the total health expenditure in 2020, which is significantly higher than the EU average. This high level of public funding supports universal coverage, aiming to provide equal access to healthcare services regardless of income or social status​​. The decentralized nature of the system means that regions and municipalities have substantial control over healthcare delivery, allowing for tailored approaches to local needs.

South Korea: Single-Payer Insurance Model 

South Korea, on the other hand, operates a single-payer system through the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), covering nearly all residents. This system is primarily funded through compulsory insurance premiums paid by individuals and employers, supplemented by government subsidies and tobacco taxes. However, the high out-of-pocket expenses for uncovered services present a significant financial burden for many households. In 2018, out-of-pocket payments accounted for approximately 32.2% of total health expenditures, which is higher compared to other OECD countries​.

Impact on Equity and Efficiency 

While Sweden’s tax-based funding aims for equity by minimizing out-of-pocket expenses and ensuring broad access, it sometimes struggles with efficiency, particularly in terms of waiting times for specialized services. South Korea’s model, although efficient in service delivery and technologically advanced, can lead to financial inequities due to high out-of-pocket costs for many medical services not fully covered by the NHIS.

Sweden: Modern Technologies and Preventive Care

Sweden has integrated modern technologies into its healthcare system, focusing heavily on preventive care. This integration includes digital health initiatives and widespread use of electronic health records. Efforts to digitize healthcare services have improved accessibility and coordination, particularly in primary care settings​. However, the efficiency of service delivery can be hampered by the decentralized structure, leading to variability in service quality and access across different regions.

South Korea: Advanced Technology Integration 

South Korea excels in the use of advanced medical technology, ranking high globally for the number of MRI machines and CT scanners per capita. This technological integration supports efficient and high-quality care, particularly in urban areas where medical facilities are concentrated. The country’s healthcare system is also highly digitized, with robust electronic health records and online appointment systems that enhance patient management and service delivery​.

Performance During the Pandemic 

During the COVID-19 pandemic, South Korea’s advanced technological infrastructure allowed for rapid and effective responses, including widespread testing, contact tracing, and efficient isolation of infected individuals. This proactive approach minimized healthcare system strain and controlled the virus spread more effectively than in many other countries. Sweden’s approach, relying on voluntary measures and less stringent restrictions, revealed the limitations in managing a health crisis with a decentralized system, leading to higher infection rates and significant strain on healthcare facilities​.

South Korea: Centralized, Technology-Driven Approach 

South Korea’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been characterized by its centralized and technology-driven approach. The government implemented extensive testing, rigorous contact tracing, and efficient quarantine measures without imposing large-scale lockdowns. This strategy was supported by the NHIS, which facilitated the rapid mobilization of resources and coordinated responses across the healthcare system. The result was effective control of the virus and prevention of healthcare system overload​​.

Sweden: Decentralized, Voluntary Measures 

In contrast, Sweden adopted a decentralized approach, relying on public health agencies’ recommendations and voluntary compliance with social distancing measures. This strategy aimed to balance public health concerns with economic activity but led to higher infection rates and mortality. The strain on healthcare facilities was exacerbated by long waiting times and limited access to specialized care, highlighting the challenges of a less centralized response to a health crisis​.

Sweden: Public Debate and Economic Considerations 

Sweden’s approach sparked significant public debate about the balance between stringent health measures and economic activity. The decision to avoid strict lockdowns was partly motivated by concerns over economic impacts, but this choice also led to higher public health costs and increased strain on the healthcare system. The public’s response was mixed, with some praising the respect for individual freedom and others criticizing the high toll on health and lives​.

South Korea: Economic and Mental Health Issues 

South Korea’s stringent measures, while effective in controlling the virus, also had economic repercussions and mental health implications. The strict quarantine and isolation measures, along with social distancing, affected economic activities and contributed to mental health issues, such as increased anxiety and depression. The government has had to balance these impacts while maintaining effective public health measures​.

The comparison between Sweden and South Korea’s healthcare systems during the COVID-19 pandemic offers valuable insights into how different models can influence outcomes in a global health crisis. Sweden’s tax-based, decentralized system emphasizes equity and broad access but struggles with efficiency and crisis management. South Korea’s centralized, single-payer system excels in efficiency and technological integration but faces challenges with financial sustainability and equity due to high out-of-pocket expenses.

Lessons Learned and Policy Recommendations

One of the primary lessons from the comparison of Sweden and South Korea’s healthcare systems is the potential for integrating the strengths of both models to create a more balanced and resilient healthcare system. Sweden’s tax-based funding ensures broad access and equity, minimizing out-of-pocket expenses for patients. On the other hand, South Korea’s centralized, single-payer model excels in efficiency and the use of advanced medical technology, enhancing service delivery and patient outcomes.

Sweden’s emphasis on preventive care and digital health initiatives can complement South Korea’s strengths in technological integration and efficiency. By adopting Sweden’s preventive care strategies, such as widespread public health campaigns and preventive services, South Korea can further reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases and improve long-term health outcomes. Conversely, Sweden can benefit from South Korea’s advanced use of digital health technologies to streamline healthcare delivery and improve patient management.

Both countries face challenges in healthcare access, albeit in different ways. Sweden’s decentralized system can result in long waiting times and variability in service quality across regions. For example, surgical wait times in many Swedish regions exceed the national standard, with some areas reporting over 20% of patients waiting more than three months for surgery. To address this, Sweden can implement more centralized policies for managing specialized care and reducing wait times, possibly by adopting some of South Korea’s efficiency-driven practices.

South Korea, while efficient, struggles with high out-of-pocket expenses. High costs for non-covered services can be mitigated by adopting Sweden’s approach to minimize these costs and ensure more equitable access to care. For instance, Sweden caps annual out-of-pocket expenses at around 1,100 kronor (approximately 140 USD), beyond which the state covers the remaining costs. This model helps prevent financial hardship for patients needing extensive medical care.

The financial sustainability of South Korea’s NHIS is a pressing concern, particularly with an aging population and increasing healthcare costs. Sweden’s tax-based system, while also under pressure, offers a model for stable funding through progressive taxation. South Korea could explore diversifying its funding sources, including increasing government subsidies and introducing additional taxes on unhealthy products, to reduce the financial burden on the NHIS.

High out-of-pocket expenses in South Korea highlight the need for better financial protection for patients. Policies aimed at reducing these expenses, such as increasing the coverage of essential services under NHIS and subsidizing costs for low-income populations, can improve equity in healthcare access. Sweden’s model of minimal out-of-pocket costs provides a benchmark for such reforms.

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the importance of healthcare system resilience. Both countries can benefit from strengthening their healthcare infrastructure to better withstand future health emergencies. This includes investing in healthcare workforce training, enhancing supply chain management for medical supplies, and expanding healthcare facilities’ capacity.

The comparison between Sweden and South Korea’s healthcare systems during the COVID-19 pandemic offers valuable lessons for creating a more resilient and equitable healthcare system. By integrating the strengths of both models and addressing their respective weaknesses, policymakers can develop strategies that ensure efficient, accessible, and high-quality healthcare for all. This balanced approach is essential for enhancing healthcare system resilience and preparing for future global health challenges.

In Sweden, the waiting times for specialist care and surgeries have been a significant issue, with some patients experiencing delays beyond the guaranteed 90-day period. The demand for quicker access has led to an increase in private health insurance subscriptions, which cover faster consultations and elective surgeries. However, this trend risks creating a two-tier system where wealthier individuals receive faster care, undermining the principles of equal access. Currently, about 14% of Swedes have private health insurance, up from 6.5% in 2017.


The comparison of Sweden and South Korea’s healthcare systems during the COVID-19 pandemic offers valuable insights into the strengths and challenges of different healthcare models. Sweden’s tax-funded, decentralized system emphasizes equity and preventive care but struggles with efficiency and long waiting times. In contrast, South Korea’s centralized, single-payer system excels in efficiency and technological integration, yet faces challenges with high out-of-pocket expenses and financial sustainability.

Integrating the strengths of both systems could lead to a more balanced and resilient healthcare model. Sweden’s focus on equity and minimal out-of-pocket costs can enhance financial protection for patients in South Korea. Conversely, South Korea’s efficient service delivery and advanced use of digital health technologies can help Sweden improve its healthcare efficiency and reduce waiting times.

Both countries must address their respective weaknesses to ensure long-term sustainability and equity. Sweden needs to implement more centralized policies to manage specialized care and reduce variability in service quality. South Korea should diversify its funding sources and increase coverage for essential services to mitigate high out-of-pocket expenses.

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the importance of healthcare system resilience. Strengthening healthcare infrastructure, investing in workforce training, and enhancing supply chain management are crucial for both countries to better withstand future health emergencies.

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