The Port of Busan is a collection of several ports, each with its unique history and story. The ports that make up the Port of Busan include Busan North Port, Busan New Port, Busan South Port, Gamcheon Port, and Dadaepo Port.
Busan North Port is the largest and busiest port in South Korea, serving as a hub for international trade and commerce. Busan New Port, on the other hand, was built to handle the increasing demand for container traffic and serves as a key hub for containerized cargo.
Busan South Port, as the name suggests, is located in the southern part of the city and is used mainly for domestic shipping and as a base for local fishing boats.
Gamcheon Port, built in 1999, functions as an auxiliary port to Busan North Port and is used mainly by scrap metal, cement, repair ships, and offshore fishing vessels.
Finally, Dadaepo Port, although its construction was canceled due to opposition from residents, has outlying facilities developed by the National Fishing Port Project and a pier facility that can berth two 5,000-ton berths, but its utilization is limited due to the constant temperature in the port.
The Port of Busan is the largest import and export port in South Korea and has a rich history, with evidence of trade with Southeast Asia and Japan dating back to the Silla period (57 BC-935 AD). Over the centuries, the port has undergone numerous changes and played a vital role in Korea’s modern history and economic development. In this article, we will take a closer look at the history, current status, and future of the Port of Busan and its various components, including Busan North Port, Busan New Port, Busan South Port, Gamcheon Port, and Dadaepo Port.
History of Busan Port
Busan Port was first opened in 1407 under the name of Busanpo in the early Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). During this time, trade was conducted with Japan and the port was designated as a commercial port under 1the Gyehae Treaty in 1443. In the late Joseon Dynasty, the signing of the Ganghwa Island Treaty in 1876 led to the opening of ports in Wonsan and Incheon, and in 1882, the Protective Trade Treaty with the United States was signed, leading to the opening of Jinnampo, Mokpo Port, Gunsan Port, and Seongjin Port.
1the Gyehae Treaty: also known as the Kakitsu Treaty, was signed in 1443 between the Joseon dynasty of Korea and Sō Sadamori of Japan. The treaty aimed to control Japanese piracy and legitimize trade between Tsushima island and three Korean ports. It marked an important step in the relationship between the two nations and helped to establish a framework for trade and commerce between them. The year 1443 in the Japanese calendar is known as the third year of the Kakitsu era.
During the period of Japanese occupation from 1910 to 1945, Busan Port was utilized as a key logistical base for the Japanese invasion of the continent, leading to the development of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th piers, and the central pier, which began in 1912 and continued until 1943. After Korea was liberated in 1945, there was initially no need for further development of the port. However, the need for new facilities emerged after the Korean War and the successful implementation of the economic development plan in the 1960s. In response, a comprehensive development plan was established for Busan Port in the 1970s. As a result of these efforts, by 1977, the port was handling 25.6 million tons of cargo, more than tripling its original loading capacity of 8.1 million tons.
Busan North Port
Located in the bustling city of Busan, South Korea, Busan North Port holds a special place in the country’s history and is an essential hub in the region. Originally established as a simple fishing port, the port underwent significant transformations in the 1910s with the construction of the first, second, third, fourth, and central piers. Today, the Busan North Port Redevelopment project has integrated these piers and relocated international passenger terminals to this area, providing improved services and convenience for all who use it.
The Busan North Port redevelopment project is a key initiative by the Busan City Government aimed at transforming the North Port into an international marine tourism hub, a focal point for global shipping and a gateway to the Eurasian continent. The project covers an area of 1,532,419 square meters from the coastal ferry pier to Pier 4 and is expected to cost 8.519 trillion won.
The need for redevelopment arises from changes in Busan’s port infrastructure and social environment. The construction of the Busan New Port and the increased demand for waterfront development prompted the need for an integrated passenger terminal and the simultaneous development of the port and its surrounding areas, particularly the former downtown area.
The purpose of the project is to make the North Port a hub of the southeast coast tourism belt, create opportunities for residents to enjoy leisure time at newly developed waterfront areas, stimulate the local economy, and revitalize Busan through the integrated development of the port and its surrounding areas.
Geographically, Busan North Port is located at the pivotal point of the southeast coast tourism belt in Korea and is close to the KTX Busan railway station, which is a terminus for trains from Europe and Asia. The area where the port is being redeveloped has great potential as it is located in a commercial district and is adjacent to central commercial zones in Busan such as Nampo-dong, Gwangbok-dong, Jagalchi, and the 2nd Lotte World skyscraper under construction.
The Busan North Port redevelopment project has three main concepts: a city structure concept, a city function concept, and a city design concept. The city structure concept is to make the North Port an international marine tourism city, a gateway of sea transport, and an environmentally friendly complex city. The city function concept is to make the port a tourism destination for global visitors, a hub for sea transport, and a historical landmark. The city design concept is to embody the rising sun, dynamic waves, and soaring sea gull, which symbolize opportunity and a new beginning for the city as an international hub.
The tentative port layout includes a city cruise terminal, coastal ferry terminal, complex urban district, marina, IT-media-exhibition district, maritime cultural district, Busan station, cruise port, commercial-business district, and international passenger terminal. The commercial-business district is a highly accessible area located between Busan Station and the International Passenger and Cruise Terminal and has world-class shopping malls, finance centers, and hotels. The district is designed to maximize the number of businesses and functions in the area.
The Busan North Port redevelopment will not only contribute to the revitalization of the local economy but also provide residents and visitors with a variety of waterfront urban spaces to enjoy.
Busan New Port
The construction of Busan New Port was initiated in 1997 as a result of the growing volume of cargo, inadequate facilities, and increasing costs at the Busan North Port. This new port, located at the western end of Busan, was built to address the saturation and outdated facilities of the North Port. Spanning across Gangseo-gu, Busan and Jinhae-gu, Changwon City, Gyeongsangnam-do, Busan New Port serves as an international trade hub and is currently the busiest port in South Korea. The Busan Port Authority, a subsidiary of the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, oversees all piers within the new port.
With its geographical advantage of being situated between Japan and northeastern China, Busan New Port has the potential to function as a mega-hub terminal. The new port was designed to attract transshipment cargo from major trade routes and to foster the growth of high-value-added industries. Through its rapid cargo processing services, Busan New Port helps to reduce costs for its customers, and is also positioned as a safe and secure terminal for peace of mind. With the second phase of its expansion plan, the port will secure a total of 10 berths and increase its handling capacity to 10 million TEUs by 2028.
Busan South Port (Namhang Port)
Busan South Port, also known as Namhang Port, is a bustling hub located right next to Busan North Port. The harbor area stretches from Yeongdodaegyo Bridge to Namhangdaegyo Bridge and is home to several iconic landmarks and cultural landmarks of Busan.
One of the most notable landmarks of Busan South Port is Jagalchi Market, a symbol of the city and a hub of seafood trade. The market is a lively gathering place for locals and tourists alike, offering fresh seafood at affordable prices. Adjacent to Jagalchi Market is Busan Joint Fish Market, the largest seafood market in Korea, filled with freezing warehouses and processing plants.
Another highlight of Busan South Port is the Busan Cooperative Fish Market, or BCFM, which is the largest fish market in South Korea. More than 30% of the country’s fish production passes through the market, and in recent years, a large percentage of the catch has been made up of yellowtail, due to warming waters in the Sea of Japan. The market occupies an area of 166,420 m2, of which about 10% is a refrigerated working area.
Namhang-dong in Yeongdo is a small town with a rich history. It was once a place where many people evacuated during the Korean War and lived for many years. Despite its small size, the area is home to a number of large and small shipyards, mostly used to repair ships, giving it a strong human presence and sense of community.
At the entrance of Busan South Port is the Namhangdaegyo Bridge, a popular tourist spot with breathtaking views of the ocean off the coast of Busan. The bridge has elevators and stairs at both ends, making it easy for visitors to reach the top and enjoy the view. A waterfront park is located under the bridge, attracting locals who come to relax and fishermen who come to enjoy fishing.
In conclusion, Busan South Port, with its rich history and cultural landmarks, is a must-visit destination for anyone exploring the city. From the bustling Jagalchi Market and Busan Joint Fish Market, to the iconic Namhangdaegyo Bridge and the bustling Busan Cooperative Fish Market, the area offers something for everyone.
Gamcheon Port is a rectangular-shaped port located in the Saha-gu district of Busan, South Korea. Its history dates back to 1978, when the need for an auxiliary port to the Busan North Port became evident due to the rapid increase in cargo volume at Busan Port. The basic plan for the development of Gamcheon Port was established to accommodate the needs for a dedicated wharf for scrap metal, grain, and cement.
Between 1979 and 1999, the Gamcheon Port Development Project was carried out, with a total investment of 295 billion won from the government and 161 billion won from the private sector. The Central Pier, Government Pier, and Gamcheon 7 Pier were put into operation in 1990, followed by Gamcheon 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 Pier, and Dadae Pier in 1995. In 2008, Gamcheon 4 Pier was completed and put into operation, further expanding the capacity of the port.
Today, Gamcheon Port serves as a fishing base and a small and medium-sized repair ship complex. In recent years, the city of Busan and the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries have been working towards developing the area into a seafood cluster, with the establishment of a seafood processing advanced development complex and a seafood logistics complex.
Despite its limitations, such as severe waves during small typhoons, Gamcheon Port remains a vital component of Busan’s port system and has a rich history of development and evolution. As one of the largest ports in South Korea, it continues to play a crucial role in the country’s economy and trade.
Located in Dadae-dong, Saha-gu, Busan, South Korea, Dadaepo Port is a national fishing port with a rich history. First designated and developed in 1971, the port was one of the first 62 national fishing ports established by the Minister of Oceans and Fisheries. Over the years, Dadaepo Port has grown and expanded, becoming equipped with a range of processing and supply facilities, including docking and freezing facilities, refrigeration facilities, and ice-making facilities, as well as water supply and refueling facilities, trading floors, and common warehouses.
In 2002, Dadaepo Port received international attention when the Manpyeong Bongho, which carried the North Korean athletes and cheerleaders to the Busan Asian Games, docked at the port. The Unification Asiad Park was created nearby, which continues to be a popular tourist destination. The surrounding area is also home to several other notable attractions, such as Dadaepo Beach, Mawundae (Busan Metropolitan City Monument No. 27), famous for its rock formations and dense forests, Dadaepo Shell Pile (Natural Monument No. 179), and Dadaegin Dongheon (Busan Metropolitan City Tangible Cultural Property No. 3), as well as the downstream migratory bird arrival site of Nakdong River.
Despite its rich history, Dadaepo Port has faced some challenges. In the 1990s, the construction of the port was cancelled due to opposition from residents living in the hinterland who were concerned about pollution problems caused by timber handling. Despite this, there are still outlying facilities developed by the National Fishing Port Project, including a pier facility with two 5,000-ton berths, although their utilization is limited by natural conditions such as constant temperatures in the port.
Dadaepo Port is a unique and important national fishing port with a rich history, despite facing some challenges and limitations. Its continued development and utilization will contribute to the growth and prosperity of the Busan area and the fishing industry as a whole.
Future of Busan Port
The future of Busan Port looks bright, with plans for further expansion and development of its various components, including Busan North Port, Busan New Port, Busan South Port, Gamcheon Port, and Dadaepo Port. The Busan City Government is actively pursuing a vision of transforming the Port of Busan into a major hub of the global shipping network and a gateway to the Eurasian continent.
To achieve this vision, the city government is working closely with the private sector to implement a number of major infrastructure projects, including the redevelopment of Busan North Port, the construction of a new terminal building at Busan New Port, and the expansion of the facilities at Busan South Port, Gamcheon Port, and Dadaepo Port.